A bunion is a firm, painful bump that forms over a bony bulge at the base of the big toe. In most cases, the big toe joint also is enlarged and has degenerative arthritis. The toe also may be pushed toward the second toe (hallux valgus). Bunions tend to be inherited, but they also are common in the following groups. Women who wear high heels. People who wear shoes that are too narrow or too pointed. People with flatfeet. All of these situations force the big toe to drift toward the little toes, and this can cause bunions to form.
Bunions are most often caused by an inherited faulty mechanical structure of the foot. This faulty structure causes the drifting of the great toe and the bone to become prominent on the side of the foot. The skin then gets pinches by this bony prominence and the shoe. Therefore in most cases bunions are not caused by tight shoes but are made more painful by tight shoes. End stage bunions may become painful both in and out of shoes.
Symptomssymptoms and problems caused by bunions include pain. You may then have difficulty walking due to pain. Inflammation and swelling at the base of the toe. This sometimes becomes infected. The foot may become so wide that it can be difficult to find wide enough shoes. You may get arthritis in the big toe. The second toe can become deformed. In severe cases, the big toe can push your second toe up out of place.
When an x-ray of a bunion is taken, there is usually angulation between the first metatarsal bone and the bones of the big toe. There may also be angulation between the first and second metatarsal bones. These angular irregularities are the essence of most bunions. In general, surgery for bunions aims to correct such angular deformities.
Non Surgical Treatment
Padding with a number of different materials (eg felt) to reduce pressure on the painful prominence of the bunion. Physical therapy can be used to help with the symptoms and improve the range of motion (this is particularly helpful if the pain is coming from inside the joint, rather than from shoe pressure). Manipulation of the joint can be used to help with this (manipulation will never correct the alignment of the joint). Any corns and calluses that are causing symptoms should be treated. The correct fitting of footwear is essential for anyone who is serious about doing something about their bunions and hallux valgus. It may be possible to have your shoes stretched over the area of the bunion to also relieve pressure. Foot orthotics may be useful in helping with the instability about the joint. They may be more helpful if there are other symptoms in the foot as well, as their use in “treating” bunions is controversial. They may play a role in slowing progression and in the prevention of bunions developing again after surgical correction. Exercises can be important in maintaining the mobility of the joint in those with bunions, this is especially important for the arthritic type pains that may be originating from inside the joint and for the prevention of these painful symptoms in the future.
Procedures can range from shaving off excess bone to restructuring and fusing the big toe. For mild conditions, you may simply need the connective tissues holding your big toe to be tightened so they hold the digit in the correct position. More advanced bunions will need more manipulation and involved remedies. Cuts in the bone tissue can help our specialists realign the toe. You may need to have the damaged portion of the joint removed. In severe cases, the joint may be fused to prevent it from moving out of position again. If your bunion created other foot complications, like hammertoes, our specialists may correct those during the procedure as well.